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Theophany in Torah

1. Genesis 3:8-24

Location: the Garden of Eden (הַגָּן־עֵ֫דֶן 

Theophany type: Audible + Unspecific
Key word:
הלך

[3:8] Adam and Eve heard the sound (קוֹל) of YHWH Elohim moving (מִתְהַלֵּך) in the garden in the windy part of the day. They hid themselves from His presence (וַיִּתְחַבֵּא מִפְּנֵי יהוה אֱלֹהִים) among the trees (בְתוֹך עֵץ). [3:9] YHWH Elohim called to (וַיִּקְרָא) the man. [3:21] When God made skin garments for them, tangible verbs like “cutting” open an animal or “bringing over” are absent. [3:24] God expelled Man from the garden, and Man settled on the east side of it. Cherubim with whirling, flaming swords guarded against re-entry.

2. Genesis 4:3-16

Location: east of Eden

Theophany type: Audible + Phenomenal

[4:6] YHWH spoke to Cain. [4:14b] Cain says he will be hidden from the face of YHWH (וּמִפָּנֶ֫יךָ אֶסָּתֵר), which Cain put in parallel to being driven from the face of the ground. [4:16] Cain went out from the presence of YHWH (וַיֵּ֫צֵא קַיִן מִלִּפְנֵי יהוה).

3. Genesis 6:13–7:4

Location: Unspecified

Theophany type: Audible

[6:13] Elohim spoke to Noah. [6:22] The narrative calls these instructions concerning the Ark commands (אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים).

4. Genesis 7:16–8:17

Location: Noah's Ark (הַתֵבָה); all the Earth

Theophany type: Physical + Phenomenal

[7:16] YHWH was the one who physically closed the Ark after Noah entered last. [7:17] A global flood occurred for 40 days. [8:1] God passed a wind (וַיַּעֲבֵר אֱלֹהִים רוּחַ) over the Earth to dry the flood.

5. Genesis 8:15–9:17

Location: the Mountains of Ararat (הָרֵי אֲרָרָט)

Theophany type: Audible + Phenomenal

[8:15] Elohim spoke to Noah. [8:20] Noah built an altar to YHWH. [8:21] YHWH smelled the soothing aroma (וַיָּ֫רַח יהוה אֶת־רֵיחַ הַנִּיחֹחַ). [9:1] Elohim blessed and spoke to Noah and his sons. [9:16] Elohim said that when He sees the rainbow, He will remember His own covenant not to flood the Earth again.

6. Genesis 11:5-9

Location: Babel (בָבֶל)

Theophany type: Unspecific
Key word:
ירד

[11:5] YHWH "descended" (וַיֵּ֫רֶד) to Earth to see the city and Tower of Babel. 

[11:7] "Come, let us go down (נֵרְדָה) [descend even more] and confuse their languages there." 

[11:9] From that position, YHWH scattered them across the face of the Earth.

7. Genesis 12:1-3

Location: Ur of the Kasdim (אוּר כַשְׂדִים)

Theophany type: Visible

[12:1] YHWH said to Abram, "Go out...to the land I will show you...."

[Acts 7:2-3] Stephen reported to the Sanhedrin, who registered no contradiction, that this was a visible theophany: "The God of Glory appeared to our forefather Abraham when he was in Mesopotamia, before he settled in Haran, and said to him, 'Go out from your country and from your relatives, and come to the land I will show you.'"

8. Genesis 12:6-7

Location: The Oak of Moreh (אֵלוֹן מוֹרֶה), in Shechem (שְׁכֶם), in Canaan (כְנַעַן 

Theophany type: Visible
Key word:
ראה (N-stem means "appeared," "was seen," or "became visible.")

[12:7a] YHWH appeared to Abram (וַיֵּרָא יהוה אֶל־אַבְרָם). 

[12:7c] Abram built an altar to YHWH who had appeared to him (לַיהוה הַנִּרְאֶה אֵלָיו). 

9. Genesis 12:17

Location: Egypt  

Theophany type: Sign
Key word:
נגע 

[12:17] YHWH struck Pharaoh and all his household with severe diseases (נְגָעִים גְדֹלִים) because Pharaoh had unknowingly taken Sarai, a woman entailed in the promise of descendants, after Abram lied to Pharaoh about her.

10. Genesis 13:14-17

Location: between Bethel and Ai (בֵין בֵית־אֵל וּבֵין הָעָי)

Theophany type: Audible

[13:14] YHWH spoke to Abram after Lot departed about the land He would give Abram.

11. Genesis 15:1-11

Location: Abram's home, at The Oaks of Mamre (אֵלֹנֵי מַמְרֵא) in Hebron

Theophany type: Vision
Key words:
 חשׁב ,יצא 

[15:1] The Debar-YHWH, or else the message of YHWH, came to Abram in a vision (הָיָה דְבַר־יהוה אֶל־אַבְרָם בַמַּחֲזֶה ).

[15:5] He "brought him outside and said" (וַיּוֹצֵא אֹתוֹ הַח֫וּצָה וַיֹּאמֶר), "Gaze into the sky...."

[15:6] YHWH reckoned Abram's faithful response as righteousness.

[15:7] God said, "I am YHWH who brought you out from Ur of the Kasdim...."

Movement within the vision, interpersonal judgment, and self-indicative declaration all suggest a phenomenal theophany rather than a mere "message" of God interacting with Abram.

12. Genesis 15:12-21

Location: Abram's home, at The Oaks of Mamre (אֵלֹנֵי מַמְרֵא) in Hebron

Theophany type: Dream

[15:12] YHWH gave additional information to Abram after he fell asleep after the vision.

13. Genesis 16:7-14

Location: near The Road to Shur (שׁוּר 

Theophany type: Visible
Key words:
מצא ,ראה

[16:7ff] The Mal'ak-YHWH finds (וַיִּמְצָאָהּ) Hagar at a spring, in the wilderness along the road to Shur, and speaks to her.

[16:10] The Mal'ak-YHWH promises to multiply her descendants. (This is what YHWH promised before.)

[16:13a] The one who had spoken to her is now called "YHWH" (יהוה הַדֹבֵר אֵלֶיהָ) by the divinely-inspired narrative!

[16:13a] Hagar names Him, "The God who sees me" (אֵל רֳאִי).

[16:13b] Hagar says, "Have I not seen (רָאִיתִי) The One who sees me?"

14. Genesis 17:1-22

Location: Canaan (כְנַעַן)

Theophany type: Visible
Key words:
ראה ,נפל ,עלה 

[17:1] YHWH appeared to Abram (וַיֵּרָא יהוה אֶל־אַבְרָם) somewhere in Canaan when he was 99 years old.
[17:2] Abram fell upon his face (וַיִּפֹל אַבְרָם עַל־פָנָיו) on the ground before YHWH.
[17:22] After He was finished speaking, Elohim went up from Abraham (וַיַּעַל אֱלֹהִים מֵעַל אַבְרָהָם).

15. Genesis 18–19

Location: Abraham's home, at The Oaks of Mamre (אֵלֹנֵי מַמְרֵא) in Hebron

Theophany type: Visible + Tangible
Key words:
ראה ,ירד

Background: Abraham had built an altar to YHWH there after YHWH re-affirmed His covenant [Gen 13:14-17], and Abraham thereafter dwelled in that place [Gen 14:13]. 

[18:1] YHWH appeared to Abraham (וַיֵּרָא אֵלָיו יהוה) at The Oaks of Mamre the Amorite in Hebron (חֶבְרוֹן).
[18:2a] Abraham lifted up his eyes and saw (וַיִּשָּׂא עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא) three beings in the appearance of men standing (אֲנָשִׁים נִצָּבִים) near him.

[18:4] They (YHWH and the two angels) had physical feet, and perhaps they looked dirty from the road, because Abraham offered for them to wash their feet with water (וְרַחֲצוּ רַגְלֵיכֶם).
[18:8] They ate (וַיֹּאכֵלוּ) the lunch which was prepared for them (bread, curds, and veal).
[18:16] Abraham walked with them (הֹלֵך עִמָּם) on their way to Sodom.
[18:21] YHWH said He must go down and see (אֵֽרֲדָה־נָּא וְאֶרְאֶה) if Sodom and Gomorrah are as bad as He has heard.
[18:22] Abraham was still standing with YHWH (עֹמֵד לִפְנֵי יהוה) after the two angels departed.
[19:24] YHWH rained down upon Sodom and Gomorrah brimstone and fire from YHWH in Heaven (וַיהוה הִמְטִיר עַל־סְדֹם וְעַל־עֲמֹרָה גָפְרִית וָאֵשׁ מֵאֵת יהוה מִן־הַשָּׁמָיִם). Two YHWHs in one verse (yet "YHWH is One").

 

16. Genesis 20:3-7

Location: Gerar (גְרָר)

Theophany type: Dream

[20:3] God came to Abimelech, king of Gerar, in a dream (וַיָּבֹא אֱלֹהִים אֶל־אֲבִימֶ֫לֶך בַחֲלוֹם). [20:6] The narrative repeats that it was a dream.

17. Genesis 21:1-2

Location: the Oaks of Mamre (אֵלֹנֵי מַמְרֵא)

Theophany type: Unspecific

Key word: פקד

[21:1] YHWH visited Sarah, just as He had said He would (וַיהוה פָקַד אֶת־שָׂרָה כַאֲשֶׁר אָמָר). This theophany does not specify the mode of visitation, but the double, parallel reference to "as He had said" refers back to the visible and tangible theophany at 18:10. 

[21:2] As a sign and wonder, God made Sarah pregnant in her old age, just as He had said He would.

18. Genesis 21:17-19

Location: the Wilderness of Be'êr Shâba (בְאֵר שָֽׁבַע)

Theophany type: Audible

Key words: שׁמע ,שׂים

[21:17] Elohim heard the sound of Ishmael crying. The Mal'ak Elohim (מַלְאַך אֱלֹהִים) called down from Heaven. [21:18] The Mal'ak Elohim told Hagar, "I will make [Ishmael] a great nation." [21:19] Elohim enabled Hagar to see a well of water, to save them.

19. Genesis 22:1-2

Location: Be'êr Shâba (בְאֵר שָֽׁבַע)

Theophany type: Audible

[22:1] Elohim spoke to Abraham audibly, in an unspecified way. [22:2] God commanded Abraham to sacrifice Isaac, his "only" son (אֶת־בִנְךָ אֶת־יְחִידְךָ), as a burnt offering.

20. Genesis 22:11-18

Location: a mountain in the Land of Moriah (אֶרֶץ הַמֹּרִיָּה)

Theophany type: Audible

Key word: קרא

[22:11-12] The Mal'ak-YHWH called to Abraham to stop, right before Abraham killed Isaac. [22:12] The Mal'ak-YHWH both distinguished Himself from God The Father and conflated Himself with Him by saying in the same sentence, "now I know you fear God, because you did not withhold your son, your only son, from Me." [22:14] Abraham calls the place יהוה יִרְאֶה, meaning "YHWH sees to it" or "YHWH provides." [22:15-16] The Mal'ak-YHWH calls to Abraham a second time from Heaven and distinguishes His own speech from that of The Father, saying "'I solemnly swear by my own Name,' decrees YHWH...."

21. Genesis 26:2-5

Location: Gerar (גְרָר)

Theophany type: Visible

Key word: ראה

[26:2] YHWH appeared to Isaac (וַיֵּרָא אֵלָיו יהוה) and began speaking to him.

22. Genesis 26:24-25

Location: Be'êr Shâba (בְאֵר שָֽׁבַע)

Theophany type: Visible

Key word: ראה

[26:24] YHWH appeared to Isaac at night (וַיֵּרָא אֵלָיו יהוה בַלַּ֫יְלָה).
[26:25] At the place where YHWH had appeared Isaac built an altar, pitched his tent, and dug a well.
[48:15] Much later, Isaac's son Jacob called God the one before whom my fathers (Abraham and Isaac) walked.

 

23. Genesis 28:12-17

Location: Bethel (בֵית־אֵל)

Theophany type: Dream

[28:12] Jacob had a vivid dream: he saw a great stairway to Heaven, with angels going up and down it, and with YHWH at the top (יהוה נִצָּב עָלָיו).

[35:1] Later God speaks of it as an "appearing" (הַנִּרְאֶה), the only time this N-stem root is used in Torah to describe a non-visible theophany.

24. Genesis 31:3  

Location: Padân Arâm (פַדָן אֲרָם)

Theophany type: Audible

[31:3] YHWH said to Jacob, "Return to the land of your fathers...."

25. Genesis 31:10-13  

Location: Padân Arâm (פַדָן אֲרָם)

Theophany type: Dream

[31:11] The Mal'ak Elohim speaks to Jacob in a dream.

[31:13] The Mal'ak says, "I am the God of Bethel."

26. Genesis 31:24

Location: the hill country of Gilead (הַר הַגִּלְעָד)

Theophany type: Dream

[31:24] God (Elohim) comes to Laban in a dream and warns him to neither bless nor curse Jacob.

27. Genesis 32:25-32 (English 32:24-31)

Location: near the stream of Yabbok' (יַבֹּק)

Theophany type: Visible + Tangible

Key words:  אבק ,נגע ,ראה ,דבר ,פָנִים

[32:25] A "man" wrestled with Jacob (וַיֵּאָבֵק אִישׁ עִמּוֹ).
[32:26] The visitor struck Jacob’s hip socket.
[32:27] The visitor asked Jacob to let go of him.
[32:29] The visitor renames Jacob
"Israel" because he had struggled with God.
[32:31] Jacob names the place Peniel (פְנִיאֵל;
"The Face of God"), because "surely I have seen God face to face (רָאִ֫יתִי אֱלֹהִים פָנִים אֶל־פָנִים) yet my life is preserved."
[32:32] Jacob was still limping; it was a physical altercation, not a dream.

28. Genesis 35:1

Location: Shechem (שְׁכֶם)

Theophany type: Audible

[35:1] God (Elohim) says to Jacob, "Go to Bethel and make an altar to the God who appeared to you."

29. Genesis 35:9-15 

Location: Luz (לוּז), which Jacob had renamed Bethel (בֵית־אֵל)

Theophany type: Visible

Key words: ראה ,עלה

[35:9] God appears to Jacob (וַיֵּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶל־יַעֲקֹב).
[35:10] God repeats that Jacob’s name is changed to Israel.
[35:11a] God makes the declaration,
"I am El Shaddai" (אֲנִי אֵל שַׁדַּי).
[35:11b] God repeats the command to be fruitful and multiply [Gen 1:28; 9:7; 22:17].
[35:13] God
"went up" from the place where He had spoken, just like He did at the end of Abraham’s second visible theophany [Gen 17:22].
[35:14] Jacob set up a sacred pillar where God had appeared and spoken to him.

[48:3] Later, Jacob told Joseph that El Shaddai had appeared to him (אֵל שַׁדַּי נִרְאָה־אֵלַי) at Luz.

30. Genesis 46:1-4 

Location: Be'êr Shâba (בְאֵר שָֽׁבַע)

Theophany type: Vision

[46:2] God spoke to Jacob in a vision at night (בְמַרְאֹת הַלַּ֫יְלָה), telling him not to be afraid to go to Egypt.

31. Exodus 3:1 – 4:23  

Location: Ḥorêb (חֹרֵב; = Mount Sinai) in Midian

Theophany type: Visible

Key Words: ראה ,ירד

[3:2] The Mal’ak-YHWH appeared as a flaming fire (לַבַּת־אֵשׁ) in a bush.
[3:4] When YHWH saw Moses had turned aside, Elohim called out from amidst the bush.
[3:6] After Elohim identified Himself, Moses hid his face so as not to look at God.
[3:8] YHWH said, "I have come down (וָאֵרֵד)" to save the sons of Israel from the Egyptians.
[3:16] As proof of commission, YHWH tells Moses to tell the elders that "YHWH appeared to me (יהוה נִרְאָה אֵלַי)."
[4:1] Moses bargains, saying the elders may not believe YHWH appeared to him (לֹא־נִרְאָה אֵלֶיךָ יהוה).
[4:5] God gives Moses three signs so the elders will believe YHWH appeared to him.
[5:3] This encounter was described as "God met with us" or "God called to us" (נִקְרָא עָלֵ֫ינוּ).

 

 

32. Exodus 4:24-26 

Location: a lodging place between Midian and Egypt

Theophany type: Visible or Phenomenal

Key word: פגשׁ

[4:24] YHWH confronted Moses and sought to kill him (וַיִּפְגְּשֵׁ֫הוּ יהוה וַיְבַקֵּשׁ הֲמִיתֹו), likely because of Moses's disbelief and cowardice in Exodus 4:1–17. Verse 14 had said that YHWH's anger burned against Moses. Presumably, God would thereafter appear to Aaron just as He had Moses, and use Aaron against Pharaoh instead.
[4:25] Zipporah intervened. If she had not, we might assume YHWH did not appear. But she had time to act, and did so. It is thus more likely that this was a theophany discernible to the senses.

 

33. Exodus 4:27

Location: Unspecified

Theophany type: Audible

[4:27] YHWH speaks to Aaron, and commands him to go to Moses in the wilderness.

34. Exodus 5:22 – 6:8

Location: Egypt

Theophany type: Audible

Key word: ראה

[6:3] YHWH reminds Moses that "I appeared (אֵרָא) to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob" [see above, theophanies #8, 14, 15, 21, 22, 27, and 29].
[6:5-7] YHWH says He has heard the groaning (נְאָקָה) of the sons of Israel, and that He will redeem them with an outstretched arm (וְגָאַלְתִי בִזְרוֹעַ נְטוּיָה), and take them as His People (וְלָקַחְתִי לִי לְעָם).

 

 

35. Exodus 6:10-13; 6:28 – 7:5 

Location: Egypt

Theophany type: Audible

Key words: אֹתֹת וְמוֹפְתִים (Signs and Wonders)

The commission of Moses and Aaron to channel signs and wonders in front of Pharaoh.
[7:4] YHWH says, "I will lay my hand on Egypt (וְנָתַתִי אֶת־יָדִי בְמִצְרָיִם) with mighty acts of judgment."

36. Exodus 7:8-13

Location: Egypt

Theophany type: Audible + Sign

The pre-emptory sign

[7:8-9] God tells Moses and Aaron how to perform the sign. [7:10] God allows Aaron to throw The Staff of God onto the ground, and it transmutes into a tannin (תַנִּין), a serpent. [7:11-13] The magicians do the same (וַיַּעֲשׂוּ כֵן), but The Staff of God still "wins" by swallowing up the serpents of the Egyptian magicians.

37. Exodus 7:14-22

Location: Egypt

Theophany type: Audible + Sign

The 1st Blow: Water to Blood

[7:14-19] God tells Moses where to stand and what to command Aaron concerning the sign. [7:20] God allows Aaron to strike The Staff of God onto the Nile, and it turns Egypt’s waters to blood. [7:22] The magicians do the same (וַיַּעֲשׂוּ כֵן).

38. Exodus 7:26–8:11 (Eng. 8:1-15)

Location: Egypt

Theophany type: Audible + Sign

The 2nd Blow: Frogs

[7:26–8:1 (Eng. 8:1-5)] God tells Moses and Aaron how to perform the sign. [8:2 (Eng. 8:6)] Aaron extends his hand over the various waters and frogs come up out from them. [8:7 (Eng. 8:3)] The magicians do the same by their occult arts (וַיַּ֫עֲשׂוּ־כֵן הַחֲרְטֻמִּים בְלָטֵיהֶם).

39. Exodus 8:12–8:15 (Eng. 8:16-19)

Location: Egypt

Theophany type: Audible + Sign

The 3rd Blow: Gnats

[8:12 (Eng. 8:16)] God tells Moses where to stand and what to command Aaron concerning the sign. [8:13 (Eng. 8:17)] God allows Aaron to strike The Staff of God onto the ground of Egypt (upon its dust), and it transmutes the dust into gnats. [8:14-15 (Eng. 8:18-19)] The magicians try to do the same (וַיַּעֲשׂוּ כֵן) but could not, call it "The Finger of God."

40. Exodus 8:16–8:28 (Eng. 8:20-32)

Location: Egypt

Theophany type: Audible + Sign

The 4th Blow: Flies

[8:16-19 (Eng. 8:20-23)] God tells Moses to stand in front of Pharaoh and proclaim the sign. [8:20 (Eng. 8:24)] Moses does not enact it this time; Yahweh Himself did it (וַיַּעַשׂ יהוה כֵן). Thick swarms of flies swarm throughout Egypt.

41. Exodus 9:1-7

Location: Egypt

Theophany type: Audible + Sign

The 5th Blow: Disease

[9:1-4] God tells Moses to proclaim the sign. [9:5-6] Yahweh set an appointed time to do it then did it Himself (וַיַּ֫עַשׂ יהוה), putting disease on the Egyptian livestock except in the land of Goshen where the Israelites were.

42. Exodus 9:8-12

Location: Egypt

Theophany type: Audible + Sign

The 6th Blow: Boils

[9:8-9] God tells Moses and Aaron how to perform the sign. [9:10] Moses performs it. [9:11] The magicians reappear in the narrative only to note they couldn't stand before Pharaoh due to the boils.

43. Exodus 9:13-35

Location: Egypt

Theophany type: Audible + Sign

The 7th Blow: Hail

[9:13-19] God tells Moses how to perform the sign. [9:22-26] Moses extends The Staff of God towards the sky and then severe hail and fire struck everything in the open fields, except in the land of Goshen where the Israelites were.

44. Exodus 10:1-20

Location: Egypt

Theophany type: Audible + Sign

The 8th Blow: Locusts

[10:1-2] God speaks to Moses. [10:12] God tells Moses how to perform the sign. [10:13-15] Moses extended The Staff of God over the land and an east wind started blowing all day and night. The next morning a locust superswarm blankets everything.

45. Exodus 10:21-29

Location: Egypt

Theophany type: Audible + Sign

The 9th Blow: Darkness

[10:21] God tells Moses how to perform the sign. [10:22-23] Moses extended his hand toward Heaven, and absolute darkness suffused Egypt for 3 days.

46. Exodus 11:1-10, 12:29-30

Location: Egypt

Theophany type: Audible + Sign

The 10th Blow: Death

[11:1-2] God speaks to Moses. [11:4-10] Moses tells Pharoah what will happen, and Moses and Aaron "did all these wonders." [12:29-36] YHWH described as the active agent, the one who attacked/struck (וַיהוה הִכָּה).

47. Exodus 12:1-20

Location: Egypt

Theophany type: Audible

[12:1-20] God speaks to Moses and Aaron in order to institute the Passover meal.

 

48. Exodus 12:43–13:2

Location: Sukkot (סֻכּוֹת, Station of the Exodus #2]

Theophany type: Audible

[12:43-13:2] God speaks to Moses and Aaron a second time about the Passover meal, giving instruction on its future observance, as well as the consecration of the Firstborn male.

49. Exodus 13:21-22

Location: the entire Wilderness Journey

Theophany type: Visible

[13:21] Yahweh went before the Exodus travelers, leading the way, in a pillar of cloud by day, and by night in a pillar of fire for light. [14:19] Later, The Mal'ak-Elohim is conflated/equated with Him.

50. Exodus 14:1-4

Location: Etam (אֵתָם) on the edge of the wilderness [Station of the Exodus #3]

Theophany type: Audible

[14:1-4] God tells Moses where to camp next, and that Pharaoh will soon chase after them.

51. Exodus 14:15-30

Location: Pi-haḥirot (פִי הַחִירֹת), [Station of the Exodus #4]

Theophany type: Audible + Sign

The concluding sign

[14:16] God tells Moses how to divide the Sea so the Israelites can walk through on dry ground. 
[14:19] The Mal'ak-Elohim is revealed once again to be YHWH Himself (from 13:21-22), the one who was going before them in the pillar of cloud. From the wording of v.20, it is possible He came out from the cloud for the first time.
[14:21] Yahweh drove the sea apart by a strong east wind which blew all night.

It is possible this is a natural wind, or this could be the Holy Wind/Spirit. The latter option is strengthened somewhat by descriptions in the Israelites' song afterward: “By the blast of your nostrils the waters were piled up” [15:8], and also “you blew with your breath, and the sea covered them” [15:10].
[14:22] The sea was divided and the Israelites walked across on dry ground.
[14:24] In the morning watch, YHWH looked down on the Egyptian army through the pillar of fire and cloud.
[14:27-28] The parted water returned to normal at dawn and overtook and drowned all Pharaoh's army.

52. Exodus 15:25-26

Location: Marah (מָרָה) [Station of the Exodus #5]

Theophany type: Audible

[15:26] Yahweh speaks directly to the people, audibly, saying, "If you will earnestly obey the voice of Yahweh your God, and do what is right in His eyes, and give ear to His commandments, then none of the diseases I brought on the Egyptians will be brought on you, for I, Yahweh, am your Healer." This was called a "test."

53. Exodus 16:4-29

Location: the wilderness of Sin (סִין) [Station of the Exodus #6]

Theophany type: Audible, Visible, and Sign

[16:4] Yahweh tells Moses He will rain bread from Heaven, and calls what will follow a test [the 2nd test in Exodus].

[16:10] The Kabod YHWH (כְבוֹד יהוה) appeared within a cloud.

[16:13] Quail came up and covered the camp, and in the morning a dew appeared which evaporated into bread.

[16:35] The manna appeared 6 mornings a week for 40 years.

54. Exodus 17:5-7

Location: Repidim (רְפִידִים) [Station of the Exodus #11]

Theophany type: Audible, Aureal, and Sign

[17:2] Moses said the grumbling people were testing Yahweh [the 3rd test in Exodus, the 1st of the Israelites against Yahweh].

[17:6] Yahweh said He would stand on a rock near Moses when Moses struck the rock, after which water would come out for people to drink.

55. Exodus 17:8-16

Location: Repidim (רְפִידִים) [Station of the Exodus #11]

Theophany type: Sign, Audible

[17:11] Amalek attacked the Israelites and as long as Moses held the Staff of God aloft the Israelites prevailed.

[17:14] Yahweh told Moses to record the event as a memorial.

[17:16] Moses described the action as lifting his hand "up to the throne of Yahweh."

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